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QTc normal

Långt QT-syndrom och andra kardiella jonkanalsjukdomar

  1. Många EKG-apparater gör automatiskt mätning av QT-intervall och beräkning av QTc, men manuell.
  2. dre än T-våge
  3. There are no standards for interpreting prolonged QT intervals from Holter or 24/48 h ambulatory monitoring records; the normal QTc distribution at 2:30 am, for example, is not known, and thus QTc assessment by ambulatory monitoring is not recommended at present to invoke a diagnosis of LQTS. 16 Regarding the 12-lead ECG, normal QTc values are generally considered to be between 350 and 440 ms, 18,23 but, as will be discussed in the next section, this consideration of.
  4. Definitions of normal QTc vary from being equal to or less than 0.40 s (≤ 400 ms), 0.41 s (≤ 410 ms), 0.42 s (≤ 420 ms) or 0.44 s (≤ 440 ms). For risk of sudden cardiac death , borderline QTc in males is 431-450 ms; and, in females, 451-470 ms
  5. , normal överledningstid med PQ-tid 0,16 s - QRS bredden 0,118 s vilket är vid övre norm - Viss högersidig (i V1) intraventrikulärt ledningshinder med splittrad QRS, ej patologisk

Referensvärden (normalvärden) för EKG-tolkning - Vuxna

Breda kammarkomplex (QRS-tid ≥ 0,12 sek) QRS-tid ska vara <0,12 sekunder (helst <0,10 s). Om QRS-tid är ≥0,12 s är kammarkomplexet breddökat, vilket innebär det att depolarisation av kamrarna går för långsamt. Detta är mycket vanligt och det är viktigt att fastslå orsaken EKG. normalt. 50 mm/s, 1 mV = 10mm. Testsignal. amplitud = 10 mm → 1 mV = 10 mm. Frekvens. 50-100.

QTc beregnes oftest etter Bazzets formel: QTc = QT-tid/kvadratroten av RR-intervallet. Øvre normalgrense for QTc hos menn er 0,44 s og hos kvinner 0,46 s (1). Det er ofte betydelige spontane variasjoner hos ett og samme individ og det kan iblant være vanskelig å definere målepunktene, særlig det punktet hvor T-takken slutter Promillehalt Rockall Strokeskala Syncope Rule Sunnybrook Syrgas TIMI NSTEMI TIMI STEMI QTc Vätskebehov Vattenunderskott WETBAGS-5A Winters formel Ögonsjukdomar Översikt Angina-klass ASA AVPU Barn BAS 90-30-90 Brännskador Canadian C-Spine CHA2DS2-VASc Dermatom EKG Främmande kropp Glasgow Coma Hunt & Hess HUSK MIDAS Killip-klass King's College KOL Laktacidos Leverencefalopat Man måste betänka att QRS-durationen är inkluderad i QT-tiden. Om exempelvis QTc-tiden anges till 500 ms och QRS-durationen samtidigt är 120 ms så bör den »funktionella« QTc-tiden bedömas vara <480 ms (500 minus den del av qrs-durationen som sannolikt beror på den membranstabiliserande toxiciteten).> Normal QTc values. QTc is prolonged if > 440ms in men or > 460ms in women; QTc > 500 is associated with an increased risk of torsades de pointes; QTc is abnormally short if < 350ms; A useful rule of thumb is that a normal QT is less than half the preceding RR interva

långsammare hjärtfrekvens är det svårt att beräkna QTc utan miniräknare. Förlängd QTc (>99:e percentilen) hos vuxna män är > 450 ms, >470 ms hos kvinnor och >460 ms i åldern 1-15 år To this end, a prolonged QTc, defined as a QTc value >450 ms in males and >460 ms in females measured preferably in lead II or V 5 on a standard 12-lead ECG, predisposes to functional reentry, torsades de pointes, and sudden cardiac death (SCD), and represents a widely accepted, easily measured, and quantifiable risk factor for adverse outcomes. 2,3 An otherwise unexplained baseline QTc >500 ms should prompt clinical suspicion for the possible presence of a potentially lethal. låg. Normalt överstiger QTc inte 440 ms hos män och 460 ms hos kvinnor. Det kan ibland vara svårt att mäta QT-tiden; men en QTc-tid ≥480 ms utan annan förklaring anses vara patolo-gisk, Tabell I [4]. Vid grenblock antas QTc >500 ms vara patolo-giskt. Hos barn, särskilt nyfödda, kan det vara svårt att bestäm

Patients should be warned to avoid other QTc prolonging medications -the counter types) NORMAL QTc: Women: < 470ms Men: <440ms No action required Repeat ECG at least annually if clinically indicated* Tc ABNORMAL > 500ms STOP suspected causative drug Syncope / pre-syncope = emergency & need fo Normal QTc for males 0.36 - 0.44s. Normal QTc for females 0.36 - 0.46s. The heart rate has a direct impact on the QT interval. When the heart is lower the QT interval is longer and when the heart rate is higher the QT interval is shorter. In order to correct, this corrected QT interval (QTc) is calculated by using a formula hjärtfrekvens och underkorrigera vid låg. Normalt överstiger inte QTc 440 ms hos män och 460 ms hos kvinnor. Det kan ibland vara svårt att mäta QT-tiden; men QTc > 480 ms utan annan förklaring anses vara klart patologiskt. Vid grenblock antas QTc > 500 ms vara patologiskt. Hos barn, särskilt nyfödda, kan det vara svårt att bestämm Das QT-Intervall beinhaltet die komplette Depolarisation und Repolarisation und repräsentiert damit die gesamte intraventrikuläre Erregungsdauer. Klinisch wird das QT-Intervall in erster Linie zur Beschreibung der myokardialen Erregungsrückbildung (Repolarisation) verwendet. Dies setzt eine normale QRS-Dauer (<110 ms) voraus

QTc: how long is too long? - PubMed Central (PMC

Beside this, what QTc is dangerous? Patients who experience a prolonged QTc interval are at risk for developing torsade de pointes (torsades).QTc intervals of less than 440 ms are considered to be normal in healthy patients.QTc intervals of 440 ms to 460 ms in men and 440 ms to 470 ms in women are considered borderline.. Subsequently, question is, what is prolonged QT interval on ECG The Corrected QT Interval (QTc) adjusts the QT interval correctly for heart rate extremes. This is an unprecedented time. It is the dedication of healthcare workers that will lead us through this crisis Se considera QTc normal de 400 a 440 ms. Es borderline en varones entre 430-450 ms y en mujeres, entre 451-470 ms. Elevado en varones por encima de 450 ms, y en mujeres, por encima de 470 ms. Tanto la de Rautaharju, que calcula el QTc, empleando solamente la frecuencia cardiaca, como el resto, que emplean el QT medido sobre el ECG como base de. definitions vary in the literature but as a guide, normal QTc intervals are <450 milliseconds (ms) for men and <460 ms for women; a QTc between these values and 500 ms is considered prolonged; a QTc >500 ms is considered clinically significant and is likely to confer an increased risk of arrhythmia ; Notes

QTc intervals of less than 440 ms are considered to be normal in healthy patients. QTc intervals of 440 ms to 460 ms in men and 440 ms to 470 ms in women are considered borderline. What is a normal QT interval range? The normal QT interval varies depending on age and gender, but it's usually 0.36 to 0.44 second (see QT interval ranges) The upper normal limits of corrected QTc were determined by excluding the top 2% from the global distribution charts as follows: Bazett 483 ms, Fridericia 460 ms, Framingham 457 ms, and Hodges 457 ms. Whether for males and/or females, the middle range of HR from 60 to 99 bpm has similar upper normal limits of QTc for all formulae except Bazett QTc beregneren anvendes til at beregne QTc ud fra 1 til 3 QT-intervaller that is normal, a mathematical formula, known as Bazet's formula, was devised to correct for the heart rate of the patient. The c in QTc stands for corrected. If you plug in a few variables into a QTc formula, you will get a number result. You then compare this number with the two normal values (male 0.39, female 0.41)

Øvre normalgrænse for QTc er 0,45 sekunder; Hos børn, specielt nyfødte, kan det være svært at afgrænse T-takkerne. Øvre normalgrænse for QTc i fjerde levedøgn er 0,44 sekunder, i anden levemåned 0,45 sekunder og efter sjette levemåned igen 0,44 sekunder; Ved breddeøgning i QRS grundet grenblok eller pacemakerrytme, er QT-målingen usikke Normal QTc interval does not change over time in preadolescents. A minority of them has a QTc ≥480 ms; in these subjects, QTc interval remains prolonged. The use of Bazett and Fridericia correction formulae is not interchangeable and the Fridericia correction should be preferred in preadolescents with a resting HR ≥82 b.p.m

QT interval - Wikipedi

QTc: how long is too long? | British Journal of Sports

EKG-atlas, normalt EKG - Internetmedici

  1. Table 3: Normal QTc Values by Age and Gender (Bazzet › Most Popular Law Newest at www.radcliffecardiology.com Courses. Posted: (1 week ago) Table 3: Normal QTc Values by Age and Gender (Bazzet formula) Christos-Konstantinos Antoniou, Polychronis Dilaveris, Panagiota Manolakou, Spyridon Galanakos, Nikolaos Magkas, Konstantinos Gatzoulis, Dimitris Tousoulis
  2. Inzwischen weiß wohl jeder Psychiater, dass er auf die QTc-Zeit im EKG achten muss. Es gibt Medikamente, die die Erregungsausbreitung im Herzen verlangsamen können und im schlimmsten Fall eine tödliche Herzrhythmusstörung auslösen können. Ob und in welchem Maße dieses Problem auftritt, kann man im EKG anhand der QTc-Zeit ablesen
  3. ishes with increasing age 6; it has been suggested that cardiac ion channel activity is altered by sex hormones, which in turn affects the QT interval. 25 Thus, differences in cut-off points between men and women are not.
  4. i. Come in questo casoQTc 468 msec. In questo caso QTc di 511 msec. Un QTc> 500 ms è considerato gravemente alterato sia per gli uo

Odstęp QT - fragment zapisu elektrokardiograficznego od początku załamka Q do końca załamka T, obejmujący wspólny czas trwania zespołu QRS, odcinka ST i załamka T. Czas jego trwania i morfologia zapisu odpowiada depolaryzacji i repolaryzacji mięśniówki komór.Nieprawidłowy odstęp QT stwarza predyspozycję do występowania groźnych dla życia komorowych zaburzeń rytmu QT c = QT m / √ (RR) RR = 60 / HR Where, QT c = Corrected QT QT m = QT Measured RR = RR Interval HR = Heart Rate. Online medical calculation of QT corrected (Bazett Formula) Interval is made easier here. Note : This statistics calculator is presented for your own personal use and is to be used as a guide only. Medical and other decisions. QTc ABNORMAL < 500ms . Consider: • Decreasing the dose of drug • Or switching to an alternative drugwith less risk of ↑ QTc (Aripiprazole) QTc ABNORMAL > 500ms • STOP . suspected causative drug . Syncope / pre-syncope = emergency & need for ECG monitoring (cardiac arrest monitoring) • URGENT . referral to cardiologist If . NORMAL

a QTc value coined ''borderline'' (QTc >440 ms). Although a normal QT interval imparts a much lower risk of life-threatening events, it does not preclude a patient from nevertheless harbouring a potentially lethal LQTS-causing genetic mutation. Indeed, genetic testing exerts significant diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic impli-cations Normal values for QTc interval. Men: <0,450 seconds; Women: <0,460 seconds; However, Bazett's formula is several decades old and has been questioned because it performs poorly at very low and very high heart rates The heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval is the one a patient would have at 60 bpm, and to estimate it, the Bazett's formula is used The numbers previously specified for males and females referred to normal QTc values, which may differ for men and women. This section was not included in the final document,.

Den normala EKG-kurvan, normalvarianter och patologiska

EKG - Normalvärden - icd

The QTc measurement during VP confirms the current 50-ms subtraction assumption rule within a range of ±16 ms at an average heart rate of 66 bpm. However, at faster heart rates, the 50-ms adjustment may underestimate the QTc discrepancy between a wide and normal QRS considered normal in on part of the world may not be particularly normal in another part. ECG is readily available, simple test to assess cardiovascular state that requires interpretation based on normal community findings. The need for knowing this community specific normal cannot be over emphasized. Cardiac axis was observed in this study

Grenseverdi for QT-ti

  1. However, this increased awareness brought along the pitfall of incorrect QTc-interval assessment and misinterpretation of the normal distribution of QTc values, which contributed to under- and overdiagnosis, inappropriate distress or reassurance, inappropriate noninvasive and invasive interventions, and significant morbidity. 35 Previous work has shown that the majority of physicians worldwide.
  2. QTc = QT/ (sqrt RR Interval) QTc is normally <0.45 in men (<0.46 in women and children) Prolonged QTc (esp. >0.5) is at risk of Torsades de Pointes (see below) Approximation of normal QT. QT Interval shortens with decreasing RR Interval. QT = 0.5 x preceding RR Interval (if normal rate) Approximate normal QT Interval
  3. QTc Male (msec) Female (msec) Normal ≤430 ≤450 Borderline 431-450 451-470 Prolonged >450 >470 There is considerable intra- individual variability of the QTc: multiple studies have shown that it can vary by anywhere from 76 to 102 ms over the course of 24 hours

Normal ECG : 1 Year. Sinus rhythm ~150 beats/min. Right axis deviation. T wave inversion in V1-3. Dominant R wave in V1. Narrow QRS complex. Normal ECG : 2 Years. Similiar findings to above, now with borderline right axis deviation and an upright T wave in V3. Normal ECG : 5 Years Normal values for QTc interval. Men: <0,450 seconds; Women: <0,460 seconds; However, Bazett's formula is several decades old and has been questioned because it performs poorly at very low and very high heart rates. Newer formulas (which are incorporated in modern ECG machines) are to be preferred over Bazett's formula Normal QT interval (1): QT interval varies with heart rate; females have a longer QT interval than males; definitions vary in the literature but as a guide, normal QTc intervals are <450 milliseconds (ms) for men and <460 ms for women; a QTc between these values and 500 ms is considered prolonge The corrected QT interval is estimated through 4 different formulas: Bazett's formula: QTc = QT/√ (RR in seconds) Fridericia's formula: QTc = QT/ (RR 0.33) Framingham's formula: QTc = QT + 0.154 (1-RR) Hodges's formula: QTc = QT + 1.75 (HR - 60) According to the ACC/HRS, normal values are lower than 450 milliseconds for men and below. QT Interval | QTc Calculator. This calculator is intended for use by health care providers. The results of this tool should never be used alone to determine a patient's medical treatment. This tool is a statistical model and is not a substitute for an individual treatment plan developed by a doctor with personal knowledge of a specific patient

of QTc prolongation. The QT interval is an ECG measure of ventricular depolar-ization and repolarization. The QTc des-ignation indicates a correction for heart rate with increasing heart rate correlating with a shorter QT interval. Readings of 440 milliseconds are considered normal.1 QTc prolongation is defined as >450 millisec Online medical calculator to measure the QT corrected (QTc) interval using Bazett equation. QTc Bazett calculator is mainly used for clinical calculations. Calculator QT Corrected (Bazett Formula) Interva Normal QTc Interval <440 ms . What is considered to be a prolonged QT interval? The QTc interval is a surrogate marker of proarrhythmic risk and literature differs with regard to the QTc interval that would raise concern over development of arrhythmias. As a guide: Borderline QTc interval >440 ms but <500 m Normal QTc used as reference value. † Borderline QTc: male 431-450 ms; female 451-470 ms; abnormal QTc: male ≥ 451 ms; female ≥ 471 ms CI = confidence interval; HR = hazard rati Corrected QTc. QT =. msec sec small boxes. RR =. msec sec small boxes. QTc =. sec. DISCLAIMER: All calculations must be confirmed before use. The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses are not a substitute for clinical judgement

New normal limits for the paediatric electrocardiogram. 2001 Eur Ht Journal 22:702-711 Here is one table on intervals from that paper with more exact intervals (since free full text pdf is online, I took the liberty of putting this one table here) Risk factors ACA or SCD in patients with normal-range QTc intervals included mutation characteristics (transmembrane-missense vs. nontransmembrane or nonmissense mutations: hazard ratio: 6.32; p = 0.006) and the LQTS genotypes (LQTS type 1: LQTS type 2, hazard ratio: 9.88; p = 0.03; LQTS type 3: LQTS type 2, hazard ratio: 8.04; p = 0.07), whereas clinical factors, including sex and QTc.

The normal QT interval is controversial, The QTc is considered prolonged if greater than 450 ms in males and 470 ms in females. It is calculated using Bezett's formula, described below Intervals (PR, QRS, QTc): See Table 7-4 for normal PR and QRS intervals. The QTc is calculated as QTc = QT (sec) √R-R (average 3 measurements taken from same lead Definitions of normal QTc vary from being equal to or less than 0.40 s (≤400 ms), 0.41s (≤410ms), 0.42s (≤420ms) or 0.44s (≤440ms). For risk of sudden cardiac death, borderline QTc in males is 431-450 ms; and, in females, 451-470 ms. An abnormal QTc in males is a QTc above 450 ms; and, in females, above 470 ms

Korrigerad QT-ti

Lang QT-tid syndrom (LQTS) er en medfødt eller erhervet tilstand hvor man kan se en forlengelse av QT-intervallet ved elektrokardiografi (EKG). Tilstanden er forbundet med risiko for plutselig død som følge av arytmi.Sykdommen ble første gang beskrevet i Norge i 1957 (Jervell og Lange-Nielsens syndro Morganroth J. Relations of QTc prolongation on the electrocardiogram to torsades de pointes: definitions and mechanisms. Am J Cardiol 1993;72:10B-13B. Eisenberg SJ, Scheinman MM, Dullet NK, Finkbeiner WE, Griffin JC, Eldar M, et al. Sudden cardiac death and polymorphous ventricular tachycardia in patients with normal QT intervals and normal systolic cardiac function

QT-förlängning på EKG vanligt vid akut tablettintoxikatio

The normal sequence of repolarization 1,2 begins at the epicardial layer, moving (not propagating, except for the small contribution of gap junctions) towards the endocardium, based on the intrinsic action potential duration (APD) of the respective cells. 3 However, a defined population of cells, mainly located in the intermediate layers of myocardium (M cells), but also found in islets nearer. The normal length of the QT varies with heart rate and there is a formula that is applied to correct for this. ECG machines automatically provide you with this 'corrected QT' (QTc). Normal QTc is generally under 480ms. As a rule of thumb, if the end of the QT interval is over over half way to the next QRS then consider long QT

QT Interval • LITFL • ECG Library Basic

•Drug wih risk: augmentation du QTc et évidence de risque associé de TdP sotalol, amiodarone, flecainide Érythromycine, avelox, biaxin, chloroquine ,zytromax Haldol, thorazine, mellaril, orap Motillium, celexa,methadone •Drug with possible risk: augmentation du QTc mais pas d'évidence suffisante de risque de Td Normal adult 12-lead ECG. The diagnosis of the normal electrocardiogram is made by excluding any recognised abnormality. It's description is therefore quite lengthy. Calculate the corrected QT interval (QTc) by dividing the QT interval by the square root of the preceeding R - R interval. Normal = 0.42 s

  1. Normal variants: An isolated (single) T-wave inversion is accepted in lead V1 and lead III. In some instances the T-wave inversions from childhood may persist in V1-V3(V4), which is called persistent juvenile T-wave pattern. QTc duration men ≤0,45 s. QTc duration women ≤0,46 s
  2. es,.
  3. La duración normal del Intervalo QTc es de entre 0.32 segundos y 0.44 segundos. Lo que se traduce en una duración de entre 8 y 11 cuadros pequeños en el Papel del Electrocardiograma . Algunos autores refieren que el valor máximo varia según el sexo
  4. e whether is normal or not it should undergo adequate rate correction (corrected QT or QTc)

QTc intervals of 450 ms and 460 ms are generally accepted as the upper limits of normal for adult men and women, respectively.4 Although QT prolongation is associated with torsades de pointes (TdP) and sudden cardiac death,5 it is an imperfect predictor It was revelead that normal limits for the QTc interval in children does not depend on gender. Upper limit of QTc for children 1-7 years old was 443 ms for boy and girls. In children 0-1 and 8-17. normal or borderline QTc Up to 30% of individuals with familial LQTS may have QTc intervals within the normal range, and unmasking QTc prolongation may occur with provocative tests. Standing test. This is a relatively new technique, requiring validation and more normative data (especially in children), but may add diagnostic information if a hig

The QT Interval Circulatio

  1. QTc-tid förlängning. Psykofarmaka-inducerad QTc-tid högre än 500 ms eller ökning med > 60 ms innebär signifikant ökad risk för arytmier och Torsade de pointes. Kan potentiellt utlösas av samtliga neuroleptika, där Sertindol och Zeldox har fått särskild uppmärksamhet
  2. The QTc is less than 450 ms in 95% of normal males, and less than 460 ms in 95% of normal females. LQTS is suggested if the QTc is longer than these cutoffs. However, as 5% of normal people also fall into this category, some suggest cutoffs of 470 and 480 ms for males and females respectively, corresponding with the 99th centiles of normal values
  3. Antiemetics Causing QTc Prolongation Numerous antiemetics are available to practitioners and differ in both the receptors they target and side effect profiles. Table 1 presents a list of commonly used antiemetics, their class, mechanism of action, side effects, and effect on the QT interval
  4. Normal = -30 till 90˚ (dvs mellan aVL och aVF), vä-ställd < -30 och hö-ställd > 90 Utgå från ett iso-elektriskt QRS-komplex bland extremitetsavledningarna - gå därifrån 90 grader (3 avledningar) i riktning åt det håll R-vågen blir högr
  5. QTc > 500 ms olması artmış torsades de pointes riski ile ilişkilidir. < 350 ms olması durumunda QTc anormal olarak kısadır. Kullanışlı bir pratik kural olarak normal QT öncesindeki RR aralığının yarısından azdır
  6. gham corrections 2 in this calculator because it has more uniform correction over a wide range of heart rate 3 . Remember, this calculator is not 100% reliable, and it is not a substitute for traditional methods of corrected QT interval calculation, nor electrocardiogram evaluation made by a doctor or competent.

What Is Normal QT QTc On ECG? - ePainAssis

However, no QTc value has been established for cardiac arrhythmia. The most common ventricular arrhythmias such as TdP have been associated with a QTc greater than 500 milliseconds. 2,3 . Nonpharmacologic Risk Factors Several factors influence the risk of drug-induced QT prolongation (Table 1) QTc normal para homens de 0,36 a 0,44s. QTc normal para mulheres 0,36 - 0,46s. A frequência cardíaca tem um impacto direto no intervalo QT. Quando o coração está mais baixo, o intervalo QT é mais longo e quando a frequência cardíaca é mais alta, o intervalo QT é mais curto. Para corrigir, esse intervalo QT corrigido (QTc) é. Normal Values of the QT Interval (12-Lead ECG) Bazett's formula has been more frequently used in med-ical publications than Fridericia's formula. Therefore, most reported criteria for normal and abnormal values for QTc are derived from Bazett's formula. Our research group has utilized digitized data file for QT- and RR-interval measure The mean QTc interval were 415.6 ± 18.8 and 470.1 ± 23.1 ms in normal group and QTc prolongation group respectively. The prevalence of QTc prolongation increased significantly with a decrease in serum potassium and an increase in magnesium

QT-Intervall - Fokus-EK

is called the QTc. The QTc is the value that doctors generally use when assessing for LQTS. Normally, the QTc interval varies from 0.35 to 0.46 seconds (350-460 milliseconds). About 95% of people have a value between 0.38 and 0.44 seconds, which is the range doctors generally consider normal. In both inherite The normal QTc (corrected) interval The QT interval indicates how fast the ventricles are repolarized, becoming ready for a new cycle.. The normal value for QTc is: below 450ms for men and below 460ms for women as agreed upon by the ACC / HRS. []In a recent ACC consensus document an expert writing group suggest that in a hospital setting the upper limit be raised to the 99th percentile of.

Prolonged QT Interval Corrected for Heart Rate DuringPaediatric arrhythmias – SujyotHeartClinicFAQs | Covid-19 | QT IntervalLong QT Syndrome Knowledge Base: Diagnosis & Evaluation

ECG Learning Center - An introduction to clinical electrocardiography. 3. Characteristics of the Normal ECG. It is important to remember that there is a wide range of normal variability in the 12 lead ECG. The following normal ECG characteristics, therefore, are not absolute Normal and abnormal QT interval duration and its changes › Best Online Courses From www.nih.gov Courses. Posted: (2 days ago) Normal QTc interval does not change over time in preadolescents. A minority of them has a QTc ≥480 ms; in these subjects, QTc interval remains prolonged Baseline QTc was evaluated through the use of most recent ECG within the past 6 months of admission. Borderline QTc was defined as 431 to 450 ms in males and 451 to 470 ms in females. Abnormal QTc was defined as >450 ms in males and >470 ms in females. Following admission, inpatient charges for telemetry during hospitalization were included